Prostatitis is an inflammation and swelling of the tissues of the prostate gland (prostate gland). And 50% of men aged 18-50 face such a disappointing diagnosis.
The disease usually develops slowly, with no obvious signs, and for many years brings minimal concern to its owner.
A man has been living with prostatitis for years, does not consult a doctor and allows the disease to become chronic with serious complications.
When the patient still arrives at the clinic, it is too late: the prostatitis becomes malignant or leads to infertility. So, what are the first signs of the disease and how to deal with it?
Prostate disease in men has characteristic symptoms and requires immediate treatment. But the disease is insidious. Sometimes its symptoms do not appear for years.
Meanwhile, the inflammatory process develops slowly, affects more and more new tissues and leads to impotence and infertility.
In order not to start the disease, the man should pay attention to the characteristic signs that accompany each type of prostatitis:
- pain and burning sensation in the perineum, lower abdomen, scrotum and in the area where the prostate is located;
- increased urination, weak jet, appearance of pus from the urethra in the form of white fibers or scales;
- rapid or, conversely, prolonged ejaculation (sometimes painful), long nocturnal erections, sexual dysfunction, decreased sexual desire;
- deterioration of sperm quality, change in its quantity;
- fatigue and irritability, general weakness.
The symptoms of the disease may occur together or separately; sometimes they are so fine that they are due to fatigue or lack of sleep. If a man notices at least one of the above symptoms, he should see a doctor.
It should not be assumed that prostate problems are people who have crossed the threshold of the 30th birthday. Prostatitis can occur in any sexually mature man and now people aged 18-20 are getting sick more often.
Causes of the disease
Prostatitis in men is provoked by various reasons:
- prolonged abstinence from sexual life, stagnation and poor blood circulation in the genitourinary system;
- injuries, hypothermia, age-related changes;
- genital infections, viruses, bacteria.
In combination with factors that create a favorable situation for damage to the body, these causes cause inflammation of the prostate gland.
- indiscriminate or irregular sex life, artificial prolongation or interruption of sexual intercourse;
- sedentary, sedentary lifestyle;
- past infections, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system;
- decreased immunity, propensity to allergies, hormonal disorders;
- frequent hypothermia;
- untimely emptying of the bladder and irregular bowel movements;
- stress and emotional overload;
- excessive physical activity or lifting heavy objects;
- smoking and alcoholism;
- lack of vitamins, micro- and macronutrients.
If a man's body is affected by at least one of the above factors, he is more likely to develop prostatitis. In this case, it is recommended that you undergo a preventive examination every six months.
Prostatitis can take different forms and be caused by different reasons. Depending on this it is divided into different types.
A large number of varieties of prostatitis leads to the fact that in each case must be prescribed individual treatment. You should not listen to the advice of friends and their drug reviews. What worked in one case will be completely ineffective in another.
It develops due to the effect on the prostate tissue of pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate gland from the urethra or bladder and lead to inflammation.
Sometimes acute prostatitis occurs after chronic infectious diseases - sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, caries - or as a result of hormonal disorders.
The signs of acute prostatitis are intense:
- constant weakness, fatigue, malaise;
- slight increase in temperature;
- pain in the groin, anus, sometimes extending to the back, waist and legs;
- frequent urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, low blood pressure, sting, urinary retention;
- lack of erection, impaired ejaculation;
- purulent discharge from the urinary tract.
Acute prostatitis is dangerous because the inflammation spreads quickly, affecting nearby organs. Sometimes this leads to extensive abscess of adjacent tissues and vascular thrombosis.
Usually the treatment is not done at home, but in a hospital. If the therapy was correct, the acute prostatitis was completely cured.
If treatment is untimely or insufficient, the disease becomes chronic.
It becomes a consequence of untreated acute infectious prostatitis (bacterial form) or arises from trauma, hypothermia (abacterial form).
The symptoms of chronic prostatitis during remission are almost non-existent.
One can celebrate:
- discomfort or slight pain in the groin;
- increased urination, decreased flow;
- constant weakness, apathy;
- decreased sexual desire.
How does chronic prostatitis manifest itself during exacerbation?
It is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of an acute condition. Chronic prostatitis is characterized by a wavy course: after exacerbation there will inevitably be a period of remission.
Men prefer to wait for the acute period and forget about the disease for several months. Few go to the doctor.
Infectious prostatitis is caused by damage to prostate tissue by viruses, bacteria or fungi.
The following types of infectious prostatitis are distinguished by type of microorganism-pathogen:
- bacterial (intestinal or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, streptococci);
- viral (herpes virus, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus);
- mycoplasma (mycoplasma);
- gonorrheal (gonococcus);
- chlamydial (chlamydia);
- tuberculosis (Koch's bacillus);
- fungal (Candida fungus);
The symptoms of infectious prostatitis repeat the symptoms of the acute form of the disease.
If the disease is not treated, it leads to a purulent process that quickly spreads to all nearby organs. Such a life-threatening condition becomes an indication for surgery.
It is caused by stones in the prostate gland. This form occurs in older men who have refused treatment for a chronic disease.
The symptoms of calculous prostatitis are similar to those of chronic disease, but are sometimes supplemented by specific signs:
- pain in the sacrum and lower back that worsens after walking, prolonged sitting or intercourse;
- the presence of blood in the semen.
It is most often detected during an ultrasound scan.
It occurs due to stagnation of the secretion of the prostate or blood in the veins that penetrate into this organ. Overload is a consequence of irregular sex life, wearing tight underwear, physical inactivity or alcohol abuse.
The symptoms of this form of the disease are mild, reminiscent of signs of chronic prostatitis.
Each type of prostatitis has its consequences for the body.
For example, untreated prostatitis becomes chronic or leads to the following complications:
- purulent inflammation of the prostate gland;
- swelling of the prostate;
- acute urinary retention.
Usually such consequences occur rarely, as acute prostatitis is clearly manifested and the man goes to the doctor.
Chronic prostatitis, which is less obvious and develops over a longer period of time, can cause many more problems.
Complications of chronic prostatitis and its consequences for men's health:
- sclerosis of the prostate tissue;
- cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- prostate abscess;
- vesiculitis, epididymitis;
- calculous formations in the bladder and prostate gland;
- kidney failure;
- adenoma and prostate cancer.
In advanced chronic prostatitis, many pathological changes are irreversible. For example, problems with urination and sexual dysfunction will no longer be eliminated by simply curing prostatitis.
If characteristic symptoms appear, the man should visit a urologist or andrologist. The doctor diagnoses "acute prostatitis" based on a survey, examination of the patient, digital rectal examination and analysis of prostate secretion.
These tests usually do not cause discomfort, but during exacerbations can cause painful sensations.
Examination of prostate secretion reveals the nature of the disease - bacterial or abacterial. With the bacterial origin of prostatitis, the secret is also being investigated for resistance to antibacterial drugs.
Chronic inflammation is more difficult to detect.
A whole range of laboratory and hardware techniques is used for this:
- bacteriological culture of prostate secretion and urine to determine infection;
- biochemical analysis of venous blood to determine the level of ESR, PSA and leukocytes;
- analysis of urethral discharge;
- prostate biopsy;
- Ultrasound (through the abdominal wall) and TRUS (through the rectum);
- MRI and CT of the damaged organ;
- urodynamic studies;
- X-ray examination.
Why can't the diagnosis be made solely on the basis of the clinical manifestations of prostatitis?
The fact is that the doctor must identify not only the presence of the disease, but also the cause of it in order to choose an effective treatment.
If acute prostatitis can be eliminated in one course of treatment, chronic prostatitis is treated much longer. Sometimes the patient becomes a regular visitor to the urologist's office. The more correctly the treatment is chosen and the more closely the patient follows the doctor's recommendations, the longer the remission period will be.
How to treat prostatitis?
Treatment of prostatitis is a lengthy process that takes at least 1. 5 months and includes a range of procedures.
The key to successful therapy is the timely visit to the clinic, the high professionalism of the doctor, the correct diagnosis and the strict observance by the patient of all the recommendations of a specialist.
Prostatitis is prescribed a complex treatment, which includes taking anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics in the acute phase and physiotherapy and massage in the remission stage. These methods alone will not have the desired effect.
Drug therapy lasts 3-4 weeks and includes the following groups of drugs:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain and inflammation;
- antibacterial drugs (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines) for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis and diseases caused by hypothermia;
- immunomodulators, vitamin and mineral complexes to stimulate the body's defenses;
- hormonal drugs to eliminate hormonal imbalance and stagnation of the secretion of the prostate gland in its tissues;
- muscle relaxants and alpha-blockers for muscle relaxation (eliminating inflammation of the prostate gland, relieving spasm of the urethra and bladder, facilitating the process of urination).
Particularly effective are drugs that are available in the form of rectal suppositories.
They deliver the active substance to the prostate tissue faster than tablets and injections and have a better healing effect.
Acute prostatitis is treated with medication until the disease enters remission. In advanced cases, the patient is sent to a hospital and up to 5 groups of antibiotics are prescribed at the same time.
Physiotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment and is used only in combination with medications.
It is impossible to treat the prostate with physiotherapy devices until the symptoms of exacerbation are completely eliminated.
Types of physiotherapy:
- electrical stimulation;
- laser treatment;
- transrectal magnetic therapy;
- phonophoresis and phototherapy;
- prostate massage.
Physiotherapy gives the best results in chronic and congestive prostatitis.
But in infectious and calculous disease, massage should be abandoned - this will only help the infection to spread faster to nearby organs or to move the stones.
Surgical treatment can be radical (removal of the prostate) or gentle (removal of part of the prostate or injections to compress it).
Indications for surgery:
- narrowing of the urethra, phimosis of the glans penis and acute urinary retention;
- purulent process in the tissues of the prostate and in nearby organs;
- stagnation of the secretion of the prostate in its cavity due to improper functioning of the seminal vesicles;
- stones in the prostate cavity;
- prostate adenoma or sclerotic changes in its tissues.
What is a prostate adenoma in men? This is a benign mass that is most often treated with surgical methods. This is a consequence of chronic prostatitis and occurs in men after the age of 50.
This type of treatment is not the best option, as it focuses on the effect of the disease, not its cause.
In addition, he is unable to regain lost health: it will only slow the progression of the disease.
Well-known folk recipes should be used only as an adjunct to the basic treatment prescribed by a doctor.
- taking decoctions of chamomile, calendula, birch buds, sage;
- the use of alcoholic tinctures of St. John's wort and echinacea;
- wearing urological patches with herbal extracts;
- the use of candles with propolis, ichthyol or sea buckthorn candles.
It is impractical to use folk remedies as a basic treatment.
They will not be able to slow down the course of the disease or cure it and valuable time will already be lost.
Preventive measures are aimed at eliminating factors contributing to the development of prostatitis and the timely diagnosis of existing disease.
- strengthening the immune system;
- refusal of casual sex;
- timely treatment of infectious and venereal diseases;
- smoking cessation and excessive alcohol consumption;
- healthy food, exclusion from the diet of spicy and smoked foods, carbonated drinks, energy drinks;
- stress management;
- avoid hypothermia and overheating;
- wearing loose underwear made of natural materials;
- regular sports, training therapy (jogging, walking, abdominal exercises, squats, "birch"), long walks.
A good sex life is important to prevent prostatitis. Such phenomena as artificially prolonged or interrupted sexual intercourse, repeated sexual intercourse are completely unacceptable.
Sex life should be regular: prolonged abstinence is unacceptable, as well as sexual arousal that does not end with ejaculation.
Also, every man should undergo a routine examination by a urologist every six months. The doctor will notice the signs of the onset of the disease and will prescribe appropriate treatment.
Prostatitis in the early stages is much easier to treat than a chronic disease.